Miyerkules, Marso 7, 2012

Gino O. Orine
Christopher Licudine
III- Linux
Communication System
 derived from the Latin word "communis" meaning to share.
 the activity of conveying information.
 requires a sender, a message and an intended recipient
- The communication process is complete once the receiver has understood the message of the sender.
 occur across vast distances in time and space.
 Feedback is important to effective communication between parties.
 from Greek “systēma” meaning a whole compounded of several parts or members.
 literally "composition”
 a set of interacting or interdependent components forming an integrated whole.
 also refer to a set of rules that governs structure and behavior.
- Systems have structure defined by components/elements and their composition.
- Systems have behavior which involves inputs, processing and outputs of material, energy, information or data.
Communication System
 a collection of individual communications networks, transmission systems, relay stations and data terminal equipment(DTE).
- capable of interconnection and interoperation to form an integrated whole.
- Ex. of Communication networks: Computer Network, Internet
- Ex. of Transmission systems: Synchronous Optical Networking (SONET) a standardized multiplexing protocols that transfer multiple digital bit streams over optical fibers using lasers or highly consistent light from light-emitting diodes (LEDs).
- Ex. of Relay stations: Transmitter sites like satellite, cable/optical fiber or the Internet, antennas
- Ex. of Data Terminal Equipment (DTE): Printers, File and application servers, PCs, Dumb Terminals, Routers
 common purpose of communication system:
- technically compatible
- use common procedures
- respond to controls
- operate in harmony

Issues in Communication System
Security issues:
• Interception of data and information.
• Outside access to a user’s computer, via obstruction.
• Sharing of virus throughout connected systems.
Globalization issues:
• Web workings
• Net Growth
- In 2008 the Internet is accessed by almost 22% of the world population. Countries like those in Western Europe, North America and Oceania have a much bigger percentage of their populations who are able to go online. In North America 73.6% of the total population have access to the Internet, and this is by far the highest amount worldwide. The next biggest numbers are with 59.5% for Oceania and 48.1% for Europe.
Interpersonal relationship issues:
• Online dating sites
- Often people are compatible online but react differently when face-to-face.
• Online forums
- give individuals equal opportunities to submit ideas and comments. In face-to-face situation, their comments can be rejected by the experts.
• Text messages and e-mails
- can be misinterpreted. There is no body language, tone of voice or facial expression in this form of communication.
• Equality in electronic communication
- All people are equal in electronic communication. On the Internet we are not aware of any disabilities.
E-crime issues
E-crime or computer crime is a form of crime where computers are used as a medium to commit crime. Some of the issues that are involved in e-crime are:
• Copyright violation
• Cyber Abuse
• Fraud and identity theft
- Example: when malware is installed onto the user’s computer without the user’s knowledge, personal information of the user is transferred to another user.
• Phishing scams
- a way of trying to get information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details by hiding a trustworthy article in an electronic communication.
• Information malware
- any kind of software or code specifically designed to abuse a computer, or the data it contains, without consent.
Current and emerging trends in Communication System
• Blogs
- short for web log
- basically a journal that is made public by placing it on the internet.
- The composer of the blogs can regularly update their blog to express their opinion of personal view on issues.
- it acts simply as a diary which describes their day to day lives.
- They mostly placed in date order with the latest post on top to provide a chronological order which is easily followed by an audience.
• Wiki
- comes from a Hawaiian phrase "wiki wiki" which means "super fast", the implication being that the amount of content grows rapidly due to the large number of authors.
- a website where users are free to add new content and edit existing content.
- Wikipedia is the largest and most famous wiki in the world, but due to the fact it’s open to the public and edited by the public, the information shouldn't be taken as face value.

• RSS (Rich Site Summary) Feeds
- a format for delivering regularly changing web content.
- solves a problem for people who regularly use the web.
- It allows you to easily stay informed by retrieving the latest content from the sites you are interested in.
- You save time by not needing to visit each site individually.

• Podcast
- a buzzword to describe a very simple concept: an audio or video file available on the Internet for you to listen to or watch.
- also refer to a series of these audio or video files (similar to how a TV or radio show can be a series of shows or just one show).

• YouTube
- a video sharing service that allows users to watch videos posted by other users and upload videos of their own.
- designed primarily for ordinary people who want to publish videos they have created.
- the vast majority of YouTube videos are created and uploaded by amateurs.

• Online Broadcasting
- Spreading of advertising message or signal over a wide area.
- uses a shotgun approach in distributing of information.

• Video on Demand (VOD)
- a method of showcasing streaming videos.
- viewed as they are being delivered, similarly to radio and television.
- the video is derived from a main server or network and viewed on a television or computer screen.

• 3G technologies for mobile communications
- Third generation mobile phone technology or 3G is an extension of 2G.
- operates on a different radio frequency to 2G, allowing better clarity and access to global roaming between 3G networks.
- offers a higher data rate transfer than 2G
- has a greater capacity than 2G
- also capable of operating on 2G networks
- built for speed and versatility

• Twitter
- a popular micro-blogging service
- has an ability to connect people in new ways, using short messages.
- mechanics of Twitter: signing up, sharing and reading messages

• E-mail (Electronic mail)
- a method of exchanging digital messages from an author to one or more recipients.
- operates across the Internet or other computer networks.
- based on a store-and-forward model
- consists of three components: the message envelope, the message header, and the message body.

• FTP(File Transfer Protocol)
- allows you to transfer your files via the Internet.
- File-sharing programs found on instant messengers use this technology.
- also found inside all Windows operating systems.

• Facebook
- social networking website that was originally designed for college students but is now open to anyone 13 years of age or older.
- where you can upload digital photos to share with your friends.
- where you can send a person a private message which will show up in his or her private Inbox, similar to an e-mail message.
- allows each user to set privacy settings
- has the ability to add applications to your profile
- provides an easy way for friends to keep in touch and for individuals to have a presence on the Web without needing to build a website.

• MySpace
- started out as a website that bands could use to promote their music
- an online community that allows friends to keep in touch and meet new people as well.
- The "friends" concept is the heart and soul of MySpace.
- where you can upload videos and photos that can be seen by your friends or anyone on the site.
- Anyone who is at least 14 years old can sign up for a MySpace account at no cost.
- You can also create your own blog for others to read.

Applying Telecommunication in Business
- also refers to Communication technology
- the transmission of information over significant distances to communicate.
- has taken the form of cell phones and wireless telephones, Internet networks, fax machines and computers.
- play an increasingly important role in the world economy
Advantages of Telecommunication in Business:
• assists in building economy and infrastructures
• smooth operation of business: the use of internet faxing
• people can access hundreds of television stations with the push of a button
• getting instant access to enjoyable information
• saves time
• World Wide access
• can increase a company's profits while breaking down the geographical boundaries between companies and consumers
• more than two people can communicate to one another at the same time
Disadvantages of Telecommunication in Business:
• the perception that a business is impersonal
- Consumers attempting to contact a business who are unable to reach a human being may become frustrated by electronic communication methods
• Equipment Expense
- Companies typically have to purchase additional equipment to implement business communication technology into its operations.
• Difficulty Training Employees
- training older employees may have a difficult time understanding the technology and how these processes work.
• can create various security issues: creation of scams, wiretapping, money etc.
• poor connections or downed power lines during/after storms
Telecommunication in Business
It is important to understand on how telecommunications affects the way businesses run and how managers can use technology to do a better job.
Three basic improvements to business processes:
1. Better communication
- Telecommunications technology can reduce geographical distance to an inappropriate factor.
- Example: E-mail, voice mail, faxing, file transfer, cellular phone and teleconferencing

2. Higher efficiency
- With telecommunication, all documents can be accessed electronically by many different departments at the same time.

3. Better distribution of data
- Organizations with the means to quickly transmit important data from one computer to another no longer need to have databases centralized in one location.
Business use of Internet
- expanding from an electronic information exchange to a broad platform for strategic business applications:
• Headquarters- Internet websites enables interactive marketing and electronic commerce and collaboration with customers, prospects and business partners.
• Suppliers- Extranets for electronic commerce enables suppliers to access inventory, refill stock and send documents over secure internet links.
• Business Partners- Business partners can use the internet for e-mail, file transfer, discussion forums and extranet access to intranet resources.
• Customers- Customers can shop at e-commerce websites for products and services with interactive service and support.
• Remote Offices- Intranet links with remote employee sites connect near teams for interactive communications, alliance and computing.
Business value of Internet
• Communication and Collaboration
- Communicate and collaborate with e-mail, discussion forums, chat and conferencing.
• Business Operations and Managements
- Secure universal access to view and use corporate and external data.
• Web Publishing
- Write, publish and share hypermedia documents.
• Intranet Portal Management
- Centrally administer clients, servers, security, directory and traffic.
Business values that companies derive from their applications on the Internet:
• Sizeable cost savings
- applications that use the Internet and Internet-based technologies (like Intranets and Extranets) are typically less expensive to develop, operate, and maintain than traditional systems.
• Customers are attracted
- Attracting new customers with inventive marketing and products.
• Improved customer service
- Retaining present customers with improved customer service and support.
• Producing revenue through electronic commerce applications
- a growing source of business value. Most companies are building commercial sites on the World Wide Web.

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